The Berlin Blockade, 1948-9 Cold War: Iron Curtain

  1. What was life like in Berlin in the post-war era?
  2. How did Soviet policy towards Berlin differ from that of the West?
  3. Why was reform of the German currency a key issue for both sides?
  4. Why was the airlift such a major feat?
  5. In what respect can the USSR and US be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift?
  6. Why did Stalin eventually agree to talks over the airlift?  
  7. Extension question:  Who was more to blame for Berlin becoming a major flashpoint in the Cold War, the Soviets or the Americans?

 

Answers:

  1. Berlin was divided into four parts. One belonged to France, another to the Soviets, another to Great Britain and the other part belonged to the USA. After the second World War Berlin seemed a ghost city.
  2. The Soviet policy affected France, USA and Great Britain, as their connection to the parts of Berlin that belonged to them was hindered by the USSR as they blocked the routes of Berlin so that the other countries couldn´t pass through them to go to Berlin. Therefore, USA, Great Britain and France had to send supplies to their Berlin territory by planes.
  3. It was because the currency symbolised union. And the west side wanted to show their power.
  4. The airlift was such a major feat as France, USA and Great Britain could be connected and sent supplies to their part of Berlin by airlift. Furthermore, this showed Stalin that his opponents were not going to give up so easy, and that that wouldn’t make him to keep all Berlin, therefore, after some time, the blockade was broken down.
  5. The USSR thought that it was a capitalist attack and they were prepare to attack the planes.
  6. Stalin agreed to talk over the airlift as he realized that the allies were very strong, and that they wouldn’t give Berlin to stalin as he thought.  

Sources Analyze

Task: Analyze sources 1, 3, 4, 9 and 13.

 

SOURCE 1: In this quotation, it Is shown Hitler’s biography, where we can see what he thought about the Treaty of Versailles. He criticized the Treaty, as he felt that Germany got a very unfair punishment. Moreover, Hitler referred as a “scandal” and a to the Treaty of Versailles.

 

SOURCE 3:  This quote is said by a German woman. She lived in the Ruhr, and she explain  the readers about how the French treated Germans when they invaded the city. She describes how people in the Ruhr suffered violence.

 

SOURCE 4:  In this picture, we can see a representation of Germany’s relationship with France and Britain. Un addition, we can see the state of Germany’s economy. Moreover, the picture shows how the prime ministers of Britain and France look at Germany while it’s “drowning”. However, they would not help Germany at all. Furthermore, we can see how  esa trying to pull out of the economic crisis, however, she didn’t ask for help.  

 

SOURCE 9: In the following quotation we can understand that German people thought that the Weimar Republic had the guilty of the hyperinflation. However, other people didn’t agree with them.  

SOURCE 13:  In this poster, we can see that with the radical change from the women before to the women afterwards, there was a huge change between the movies before this, and after this occurred.

The league of nations- Bautista Buljevich, Oliverio Llobet & Juana Zufriategui

                      League of Nations

 

In history class, with Lenny, we watched a video that talked about league of nations. Our exercise, was to answer some questions.

 

Questions

1- What were the aims of the league?

2- What happened to wilson when he returned to US after signing the treaty of versailles?

3-Why did german immigrants in USA not want to join the league?

4- What economic reason did us give to stay out of the league?

5-How did americans feel about imperialism in europe?

6-Why did poland invade Vilna? Why did the league not act about it?

7- Why was upper silesia an important region for Poland and Germany?

8-How did the league solve the conflict in Vilna?

9-What did the league decide to do Aland island?

10- Why did mussolini invade Greece in the Corfu conflict?

11- Why was the league criticised about the resolution in the Corfu Conflict?

12- How did the Geneva protocol weaken the league?

13-  why did Greece invade Bulgaria in 1925?

14- Why did Greece complain that the league “ seemed to have one rule for the large states    (such as Italy) and another for the smaller ones”.

 

Answers:

1- The aims of the league were:

  • to discourage aggression from any nation.
  • to encourage countries to co-operate, especially in business and trade.
  • to encourage nations to disarm.
  • to improve the living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world.

 

2- When Woodrow returned to US after signing the treaty of versailles he had problems. Before the US could join the league, he needed the approval of the congress, and in the USA this was not a very popular idea.

 

3- The league was supposed to enforce the treaty yet some Americans, particularly the millions who had German ancestors, hated the treaty itself.  

 

4- If the league imposed sanctions, it might be American trade and business that suffered most, so the US ended “losing”.

 

5- some feared that the league would be dominated by GB and France and would be called to help defend their empires! Many in the US were anti empires.

 

6- Poland invaded Vilna because. The league did not react because they were not ready to act.

7- The region was ethnically mixed with both Germans and Poles. This was a problem because the Poles suffered discrimination and racism, making them effectively second class citizens, so it was very important because there was confrontation between them.

 

8- The Poles captured the capital of Lithuania (Vilna), so the league told them to step back. Great Britain and France supported Poland. Poland refused, so the league of nations could not resolve the problem.

 

9- There was a problem between Finland and Sweden, that involved the territory of the Aaland islands. The league settled that the islands belonged to Finland, both countries agreed.

 

10- An Italian general named Tellini and his team were murdered in Greece, so Italy occupied Corfu. The Italian leader Mussolini was furious and blame the Greek government for the murder.

 

11- Because they made the Greeks pay, and this was criticised by many people in that time and many historians such as Zara Steiner that said: “The dispute showed that the weakest of the great powers could get its way when Britain and France agreed to sacrifice justice for co-operation”.

 

12- There was a decision in the league that if there was any confrontation between two countries they should acude to the league and then what the league decided had to be accepted by both. The league hoped this was going to strengthen the league, but GB refused to sign and instead of strengthen, it weakened it.

 

13-  Greece invaded Bulgaria because there was an incident on the border between the, in which some Greek soldiers were killed.

 

14- Greece complained because they thought it was very unfair that smaller states had different rules than larger states.

 

Paris Peace Conference

 

Lenny post some questions in her blog for us to do about the Paris Peace Conference:

1) War guilt.Explain the arguments FOR and AGAINST this term.

2) Which term followed War Guilt? How much would it be today? What consequences/impact did it have on Germany?

3) Why were the victors planning to prevent a future war with Germany in the Treaty?

4) What territorial losses did Germany have to face? What happened to the German colonies? What did Wilson dislike about this?

5) Which new nations were created after WW1?

ANSWERS

1-

The argument against was that Germany wasn´t guilty about the beginning of the War, because she made a lot of tension to start the war, as Austria-Hungary or the conflicts with Serbia that were essential for the start of the war, or the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.

The arguments for was that Germany was the guilty about the beggining of the war, because she created a lot of tension between Empires being present in almost every battle. As declaring war in France, Russia and when she invade Belgium.

2-

Because Germany had to pay the damage she caused. So she thirty billion dollars, five billion dollars nowadays. This, of course caused huge economic problem. Moreover, caused the humiliation of Germany.

3-

The victors were trying to prevent a future war with Germany. Because, they knew that Germany would grow and take revenge on them.

4-

Germany had to face many territorial losses of Poland. Moreover, she lost  Alsace-Lorraine. In addition, she lost a lot of her colonies. The colonies were given with their opther colonies, to the allies. Willson Wodrow didn´t like that, because she dislike the distribution of land between countries. Also, he did not like the extra-international organizations.

5-

After WW1, they new nations created were Poland, Yugoslavia, astern countries, zechoslovakia and Aitria Hungary.